Cataract Awarness

The Gift of Sight: Cataract Awareness Month in India – June


June is Cataract Awareness Month, a time dedicated to educating the public about cataracts, their impact, and the importance of early detection and treatment. Cataracts are a leading cause of blindness worldwide, and India is no exception. By understanding more about this condition and how we can combat it, we can work together to improve vision health across the nation.

Understanding Cataracts

A cataract is the clouding of the eye’s natural lens, which lies behind the iris and the pupil. This clouding can lead to significant vision impairment if left untreated. While cataracts are often associated with aging, they can also result from other factors such as trauma, certain medical conditions, and lifestyle choices.


Symptoms of Cataracts:

  • Blurry or cloudy vision
  • Polyopia: Seeing multiple images of a single object simultaneously
  • Difficulty seeing at night
  • Faded colours
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Frequent changes in prescription glasses



The Prevalence of Cataracts in India

Cataracts are the leading cause of blindness in India, affecting millions of people. According to recent statistics, over 12 million Indians suffer from cataract-related vision impairment. The burden of this condition is expected to rise as the population ages.

Key Statistics:

  • Leading Cause of Blindness: Cataracts are the primary cause of blindness in India.
  • Affects Millions: More than 12 million Indians have cataracts.
  • Age Factor: By the age of 70, more than 70% of Indians may develop cataracts.


Causes and Risk Factors

While aging is the most common cause of cataracts, other factors can contribute to their development:

  • Age: The risk increases as you age.
  • Trauma: Eye injuries can lead to cataracts.
  • Medical Conditions: Diabetes and hypertension can increase the risk.
  • Lifestyle Factors: Smoking and excessive alcohol use are significant risk factors.
  • Prolonged Exposure to UV Rays: Protecting your eyes from the sun can help reduce the risk.


Prevention and Early Detection

Preventing cataracts entirely may not be possible, but certain measures can help reduce the risk:

  • Regular Eye Exams: Early detection through routine check-ups is crucial.
  • Healthy Diet: Consuming a diet rich in antioxidants, such as fruits and vegetables, can support eye health.
  • Protect Eyes from UV Rays: Wearing sunglasses with UV protection can help prevent cataract formation.
  • Manage Health Conditions: Controlling diabetes and other medical conditions can reduce the risk.
  • Avoid Smoking: Smoking cessation can lower the risk of developing cataracts.


Treatment Options

While preventive measures are essential, understanding treatment options is equally important. In the early stages, vision problems caused by cataracts might be improved with stronger glasses and better lighting. However, as cataracts progress, surgery becomes necessary.


Cataract Surgery:

Safe and Common: Cataract surgery is one of the most frequently performed surgeries worldwide and has a high success rate.

Procedure: The cloudy lens is removed and replaced with an artificial lens. The surgery is typically quick and performed on an outpatient basis.

Recovery: Most people experience improved vision within a few days post-surgery.

Real-Life Impact

Consider the story of Meera, a 65-year-old woman from rural India. Meera had been living with cataracts for years, unable to see her grandchildren’s faces or perform daily tasks. Thanks to a community eye health initiative, she received cataract surgery. Today, Meera’s vision is restored, and she can once again enjoy her family’s company and contribute to her household.





How You Can Help

Raising awareness about cataracts and encouraging proactive eye health can make a significant difference. Here’s how you can get involved:


Spread Awareness: Share information about cataracts with family and friends.

Support Vision Health: Encourage regular eye exams, especially for older adults.

Volunteer: Participate in local eye health camps and initiatives.

Donate: Support organizations that provide cataract surgeries and eye care to those in need.



This June, let’s commit to raising awareness about cataracts and supporting those affected by this condition. By working together, we can ensure that more people have access to the care they need and can enjoy the gift of sight. Cataract Awareness Month is a reminder that vision health is vital, and with the right knowledge and resources, we can make a significant impact.


Protect your vision and the vision of those you love. Join us in raising awareness this June!


World eye donation day!

The Gift of Sight: Celebrating World Eye Donation Day on June 10th

Imagine waking up one morning and not being able to see the world around you—the faces of your loved ones, the colours of the sunset, or the words on a page. For millions of people around the world, this is a daily reality due to corneal blindness. However, there is hope, and it lies in the generosity of eye donors.

On June 10th, we observe World Eye Donation Day, a day dedicated to raising awareness about the critical need for eye donations and celebrating the life-changing impact they have.


Why Eye Donation Matters

Corneal blindness is one of the leading causes of vision impairment globally. The cornea is the eye’s outermost layer, and damage to it can severely affect one’s ability to see. Thankfully, corneal transplants can restore vision to those affected. However, the demand for healthy corneas far exceeds the supply, making the role of eye donors incredibly important.


The Power of One

One eye donor can change the lives of two people. Each donation can restore sight to individuals who have been living in darkness, enabling them to lead independent and fulfilling lives. It’s not just about improving vision; it’s about giving someone the chance to experience the world in all its beauty and colour again.


Facts & Figures

45 Million: The number of people worldwide who are blind, with corneal blindness being a significant contributor.

Over 100,000: The number of corneal transplants performed annually worldwide.

Thousands: Still waiting for a corneal transplant due to a shortage of donations.

The Simple Process of Eye Donation

Eye donation is a straightforward, non-invasive procedure that can be done after death. Here’s how you can become an eye donor:

Register: Sign up with an eye bank or a donor registry. Many countries have online platforms where you can easily register your intent to donate.

Inform Your Loved Ones: Make sure your family knows about your decision to donate your eyes. Their consent will be needed at the time of donation.

Spread Awareness: Talk about eye donation with friends, family, and on social media. The more people know about the impact they can make, the more donors we can inspire.



How You Can Make a Difference

Pledge to Donate: Registering as an eye donor is the first step. This simple act can transform lives.

Volunteer: Offer your time at local eye banks or participate in awareness campaigns.

Educate: Share information about eye donation within your community and on social media. Use your voice to advocate for this cause.

Join the Movement

By choosing to donate your eyes, you’re not just giving the gift of sight; you’re also inspiring others to do the same. This World Eye Donation Day, let’s commit to making a difference. Together, we can ensure that more people have the opportunity to see the world clearly and experience its wonders.

Imagine the ripple effect: one donation leads to another, and soon, the gift of sight is spreading across communities and countries. Your decision to donate can be the start of that ripple. Let’s change the world, one pair of eyes at a time.


For more information or to pledge your donation, please visit the National Eye Donation website:



Your vision is their future. Make the pledge today.


Healthy Vision

Embracing Healthy Vision: Insights from Healthy Vision Month


Hey everyone! Did you know that May is Healthy Vision Month? It’s a fantastic opportunity to shine a spotlight on the importance of looking after our eyes. So, let’s dive in and explore why it’s so crucial to care for our vision and discover some tips to keep our eyes healthy and happy.

Understanding the Global Picture:

Picture this: more than 285 million people across the globe are living with vision impairments. And guess what? India is right in the thick of it, with over 63 million individuals facing challenges with their vision. It’s a reminder that our eyesight is something truly precious.

The Aging Factor and Eye Health:

As we journey through life, our eyes undergo changes, and the risk of vision-related issues increases, especially as we get older. By the time we hit 65, around one in five of us will be dealing with vision-impairing conditions. But fear not! Regular eye check-ups can work wonders in catching potential problems early and ensuring our vision stays sharp for years to come.

Exploring Common Eye Conditions:


  • Strabismus (Crossed Eyes): This condition causes the eyes to not align properly, leading to a misalignment of the gaze.
  • Amblyopia (Lazy Eye): Amblyopia occurs when one eye doesn’t develop properly, leading to reduced vision in that eye, even with corrective lenses.
  • Refractive Errors: These include near-sightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism, causing blurred vision due to a mismatch in the eye’s shape and focusing power.
  • Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye): This contagious infection causes redness, itchiness, and discharge in the eyes, often accompanied by discomfort.
  • Vitamin A Deficiency: Lack of vitamin A in a child’s diet can lead to vision problems and even blindness, highlighting the importance of nutrition for eye health.


  • Digital Eye Strain: With increased screen time, adults may experience symptoms like eye fatigue, dryness, and headaches due to prolonged use of digital devices.
  • Dry Eye Syndrome: This condition occurs when the eyes don’t produce enough tears or when tears evaporate too quickly, leading to discomfort and irritation.


  • Cataracts: Cataracts cause clouding of the eye’s lens, leading to blurry vision, glare, and decreased colour perception, often associated with aging.
  • Glaucoma: Glaucoma is a group of eye conditions that damage the optic nerve, typically due to increased pressure in the eye, leading to vision loss if left untreated.
  • Diabetic Retinopathy: High blood sugar levels can damage the blood vessels in the retina, leading to vision loss and blindness in individuals with diabetes.
  • Age-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD): ARMD causes gradual loss of central vision due to damage to the macula, the part of the retina responsible for sharp, central vision.


Tips for Keeping Your eyes protected:

  1. Regular Eye Exams: Make it a habit to schedule those eye check-ups regularly.
  2. Eat Well: Load up your plate with veggies and foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids to give your eyes the nutrients they need.
  3. Sun Protection: Don’t forget your shades! They’re not just a fashion statement – they help shield your eyes from harmful UV rays.
  4. Take Screen Breaks: Let your eyes take a break from those screens every now and then to reduce strain.
  5. Safety Gear: Whether you’re playing sports or tackling DIY projects, make sure to wear appropriate eye protection to keep your eyes safe.


Wrapping It Up: 

So, let’s make the most of Healthy Vision Month! Spread the word about the importance of eye health, prioritize those regular eye check-ups, and encourage your loved ones to do the same. Together, we can ensure that everyone enjoys the beauty of the world through clear, healthy eyesight.



Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Understanding Causes, Symptoms, and Management



Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is a progressive eye condition that affects millions of people worldwide, particularly those aged 50 and older. It is a leading cause of vision loss in older adults and can have a significant impact on an individual’s quality of life. This article provides an overview of AMD, its causes, symptoms, and available management options.


  1. What is Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)?

Age-Related Macular Degeneration is a degenerative eye disease that affects the macula, a small but crucial part of the retina responsible for central vision. As AMD progresses, it can cause a gradual loss of central vision, leading to difficulties with reading, recognizing faces, and performing daily tasks that require clear vision.


  1. Types of AMD:
  2. Dry AMD: This is the most common form of AMD, accounting for approximately 90% of cases. It occurs when the light-sensitive cells in the macula begin to break down, leading to the formation of small, yellow deposits called drusen. Over time, these drusen can increase in size and number, causing progressive vision loss.


  1. Wet AMD: Also known as neovascular AMD, this form is less common but more severe. It occurs when abnormal blood vessels grow beneath the retina and leak fluid and blood, leading to rapid and significant vision loss if left untreated.


  1. Causes and Risk Factors:

The exact cause of AMD is not fully understood, but several factors may contribute to its development. These include:

– Age: AMD is primarily an age-related condition, with the risk increasing significantly after the age of 50.

– Genetics: Family history of AMD can increase an individual’s susceptibility to the disease.

– Smoking: Smoking has been identified as a significant modifiable risk factor for AMD.

– Ultraviolet (UV) Light Exposure: Prolonged exposure to UV light may play a role in AMD development.

– Poor Diet: Diets lacking in essential nutrients, such as antioxidants and omega-3 fatty acids, may increase the risk of AMD.


  1. Symptoms of AMD:

In the early stages, AMD may not present noticeable symptoms, making regular eye examinations essential, especially for those over 50. As the disease progresses, individuals may experience:

– Blurred or distorted central vision

– Dark spots or empty spaces in the center of vision

– Difficulty recognizing faces or reading fine print

– Reduced color perception


  1. Diagnosing AMD:

An eye care professional can diagnose AMD through a comprehensive eye examination, which may include visual acuity tests, dilated eye exams, and imaging tests such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fluorescein angiography.


  1. Management and Treatment:

While there is no cure for AMD, early detection and proper management can slow its progression and help preserve vision. Management options may include:

– Nutritional Supplements: Certain vitamins and minerals have been shown to benefit those with AMD.

– Anti-VEGF Injections: For wet AMD, intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF drugs can help reduce abnormal blood vessel growth.

– Photodynamic Therapy (PDT): A treatment option for specific cases of wet AMD.

– Low Vision Aids: Devices such as magnifiers and special glasses can assist those with significant vision loss.

– Lifestyle Changes: Quitting smoking, maintaining a healthy diet, and protecting eyes from UV light can be beneficial.



Age-Related Macular Degeneration is a serious eye condition that demands attention, especially in the aging population. Regular eye examinations, adopting a healthy lifestyle, and early intervention when diagnosed are essential in managing AMD and maintaining visual function. As research continues, advancements in treatment and management hold promise for improving the lives of those affected by this prevalent eye disease.





Visual impairment in children is caused by amblyopia commonly known as “lazy eye”. In the early developmental stage of an infant, the vision of one eye or rarely both the eyes are reduced or blurred. This mainly occurs when one eye becomes weaker. Automatically the brain favors the eye with a better vision which allows the other eye to become weaker over time. Nearly 3 out of 100 children are affected by amblyopia under six years of age and 2% adults overall. There are three main common causes for amblyopia namely:

  1. Refractive Error- In this type, there is the problem with the shape/length where one eye cannot focus as well as the other. Length abnormal-Nearsightedness, farsightedness, and when the curvature of the eye is abnormal- astigmatism.
  2. Strabismus- In this type both the eyes are not aligned in one direction.
  3. Deprivation- In this type, the cataract or similar structural phenomena deprive the vision leading to opacity.

Early detection is the key factor in curing and getting treatment through the proper channel precisely. Some common treatments are patching the eye, wearing glasses, getting proper eye drops, and in the extreme scenario surgery.


Abnormal vision development in infants or childhood reduces the vision of one or both eyes and is called Amblyopia. In other words, it is the loss of the ability to see clearly through one or both eyes. It is often called a “lazy eye”, but it is a serious condition that becomes worst with an increase in age if it goes untreated and, in some cases, leads to loss of vision.

(Image resource: American association of ophthalmology)

The illustration above clearly defines the lazy eye where one eye has a clear vision and the other has a blurred one.


Many people go unnoticed until advanced age with mild symptoms which are then tested in their old age, this happens particularly when one vision of the eye is way stronger than the other. In some cases, may it be children or adults only after the clinical examination amblyopia is diagnosed. So, every child must undergo a test at the age of three to five years. Following are the symptoms of the amblyopic condition in the child at an early stage,

  1. Favor one side of the body.
  2. Have crossed eyes.
  3. Eyes do not work together.
  4. Shutting of one eye or squinting of an eye a lot.
  5. Tend to bump on the things on a particular side.
  6. Wandering of the eye inward or outward.
  7. Encountering a large difference in nearsightedness or farsightedness between the two eyes.
  8. Head tilting- head is tilted particularly to one side.
  9. Eyes tend to have droopy eyelids.
  10. Poor depth perception.
  11. Abnormal results of the screening.

With these characterized abnormalities amblyopia shows the above symptoms which, if diagnosed at an early stage can be corrected.


When a child is born, he/she has poor vision which gradually develops over the time as the vision center of the brain develops. If the child does not properly use the eyes or does not understand their use at early life, the vision center of the brain does not develop properly which leads to a decrease in vision of a particular eye and in rare cases both the eyes. Amblyopia can happen, even though the eyes are structured properly with absolute zero abnormality. Abnormal visual experience at an early stage in life changes the nerve pathway between the thin layer of tissue (retina) at the back of the eye and the brain. As a result, the weaker eye receives fewer visuals eventually the brain ignores the visuals from the weaker eye suppressing the vision.

Precisely there are three main causes of amblyopia as shown below figure:

  1. Strabismic Amblyopia

The most common cause of strabismic amblyopia is muscle imbalance which positions the eyes erratically. It is developed when the eyes are not straight. One of the eyes can turn up, down, inward, or outward. Depending upon these positions it is further classified into four categories as follows:

  • Hypertropia- when the eye turns upwards
  • Hypotropia- when the eye turns downwards
  • Exotropia- when the eye turns outwards
  • Esotropia-when the eye turns inwards

(Position of eyes in strabismic amblyopia)

(Image resource:

Each eye is surrounded by six muscles that work together as a compatible team which allows the eye to function properly. In majority of the children with the strabismic disorder the cause is unknown whereas in one-half cases out of them the problem peeps out shortly after birth which is known as congenital strabismus. Two percent of adults suffer from strabismic amblyopia caused due to diabetes, injury to the eye, traumatic brain injury, graves’ disease, stroke, botulism. If strabismic amblyopia is not treated well, the eye that the brain ignores will never tend to see well as a result it will develop a “lazy eye” i.e., “amblyopia”. In some cases, the lazy eye is seen first and then the strabismus is noticed.

  1. Refractive Amblyopia

A large or unequal amount of refractive error between a child’s eyes leads to refractive amblyopia. As a result of which child develops blurred vision. The picture below shows the normal view through the normal eye and the blurred view through the eye which has a refractive error.

(Image resource: Google images-

Refractive error is nothing but the strength of the glasses or the conditions of how the light passes through the eye required seeing a clear vision. This type of amblyopia may not be detected because the child does not complain of blurred vision. In addition, the eye does not look different from the affected eye. This type of amblyopia develops because of the following causes:

  • Myopia is also known as nearsightedness which is trouble seeing far away.
  • Hyperopia is also known as farsightedness which is trouble seeing close things.
  • Astigmatism is caused due to altered curve of cornea.

There are mainly two forms of refractive amblyopia as shown below.

  • Anisometropic Refractive Amblyopia- It is caused by a distinct refractive error of each eye which is unilateral
  • Isometric Refractive Amblyopia- It refers to both eyes with similar refractive error.

In some cases, a combination of strabismic and refractive error leads to amblyopic conditions too.

  1. Deprivation Amblyopia

It is also known as Amblyopia Ex Anopsia. The most common cause for this type of amblyopia is congenital cataracts or haziness in the cornea leading to opaque or cloudy vision. In infants, it is urgent to treat to prevent permanent vision loss. It is one of the serious amblyopia and sometimes can affect both eyes. The visual axis of the eye is obstructed which results in deprivation amblyopia over the period, it is the least common but most severe amblyopic condition.

Risk Factors

A risk factor is nothing but a chance to get a condition compared to individuals without risk factors. Moreover, having a risk factor does not mean that one will get the condition. Some risk factors identified are more important than others. However, an individual without risk factors also can be affected by amblyopia. To sum up, there are no specific factors that can state if a person can be affected or not. Few risk factors which are determined over the period are as follows,

  • Premature birth
  • Low birth weight
  • Family history of amblyopia
  • Cornea Opacity/Refractive error
  • Absence of lens in one or both eyes
  • Congenital Cataract
  • Developmental Disability

Diagnosis and Tests

It is difficult to diagnose amblyopia. Early detection between three and five years of age is more precise through vision examination by a pediatric or ophthalmologist during routine checkups. Test and exams are necessary to find out the underlying cause which leads to proper treatment. Many other conditions can cause vision loss in an individual after birth or by birth thus, amblyopia is not the only one. Thorough diagnosis through the expertise and observations by the guardians would be beneficial in treating such cases. A typical diagnosis may involve following tests or exams.

General eye examination

  • Medical history evaluation of the family (includes congenital condition such as cataract)
  • Assessing symptoms like wandering eye, eyes turning, the difference between eyes, etc.
  • Corneal light reflex test
  • Neuronal receptive fields
  • Sensitivity of contrast objects
  • Snellen chart (visual acuity test)
  • Refractive studies by using various instruments
  • The fundoscopic examination helps to examine the back part of the eye known as the fundus.
  • Slit-lamp examination
  • Imaging studies include CT scans and MRI which scans the head and neck region which is useful to determine neural disorders related to the eye.
  • Normally in the USA and European countries, a pediatrician in a school vision program tests a child’s vision for amblyopia. They perform the following things,
    • To make the pupil bigger in an eye they put drops
    • They cover one eye at a time and test the other which should follow the moving object
    • Shine light in each the eye
    • Older children are asked to read letters on the chart on the other side of the wall of the room.
  • Vision screening is carried on newborn babies almost all over the world to detect amblyopia at the early stage and to have a successful treatment. They check for congenital or cataract problems. Infants are precisely checked for strabismic amblyopia (misalignment of eyes) and the tendency to fix and follow the object. Electronic tests mentioned above may be used for toddlers to check for refractive amblyopia. Once the child can read, they are tested the same way as adults. In nutshell typical vision exam addresses the following questions,
    • Do both the eyes see equally?
    • Are the eyes aligned properly?
    • Are the eyes moving together?
    • Are the eyes moving correctly?
    • Is there any visual difference between the two eyes?
    • Does the eye allow the light all way through?
    • Does anyone eye wanders or drifts?
    • Are any cataracts visible when seen with the help of magnifying tools?

Thus, early diagnosis and by defining the underlying causes one has a higher chance of full recovery.


Early start in treatment is a more effective strategy in curing amblyopia. It is effective while the connection between the brain and eyes is still developing. The main agenda is to make the child’s brain use the weaker eye without reverse amblyopia occurring. Treatment varies on the type of amblyopia that happened to one’s eye.

  • Strabismic Amblyopia can be merely treated with eyeglasses, contact lenses, prism lenses, vision therapy, and in extreme conditions eye surgery. Vision therapy assists in helping the brain and eye work as a team together helping the weaker eye to develop the vision.
  • The main purpose of the treatment in refractive amblyopia is to eliminate the dominant eye advantage which is used for vision. The eye which doesn’t participate to see the vision more is compelled to process the vision because of which, the severity of symptoms and signs decreases. It corrects the refractive error in the eye or both the eyes.
  • Deprivation amblyopia treatment measures include treating and managing underlying disorders or conditions.

Some of the common treatments for all types of amblyopic conditions are almost the same in the primary approach wherein it gets more specialized if complications occur or the condition worsens. Common treatments are as follows,

  • Glasses/lens or prism lens –

This type of treatment is more common and a primary approach to treat amblyopia. The power lenses normally help to correct the nearsightedness, farsightedness, and cross eyes.

  • Eye-patch

Wearing an eye patch for the stronger eye is also one of the common treatments in which the brain is re-trained and forced to use the weaker eye eventually making that eye too stronger. This patch is like a bandage. Wearing this normally lasts up to continuously during waking hours in severe amblyopia, depending on age. Good eye is patched for some time(Refer to table given below). This effective treatment can last for months or even years.

Usage of eye drop in the stronger eye is normally recommended in mild cases or probably younger children as they pull off the patch easily as play. This type of drop (atropine) normally blurs vision in the stronger eye which forces the weaker eye to develop the vision. Daily atropine administration is not necessary; a twice-per-week schedule is also effective. Parent education regarding atropine penalization for the treatment amblyopia:

Drop Administration Administer in morning; if problematic, instill drop before child wakes
Sun Protection / Comfort Wear brimmed hat and sunglasses when outside, particularly if sunny
Storage Store securely out of reach of children
Systemic Reaction Discontinue and call if facial flushing, fever, dry mouth, irritability, or confusion
Other Health Care Visits Inform of atropine use at office visits, particularly if at emergency

(Table 1 resource

Amblyopia treatment approaches: Historical versus current evidence-based approach-

  Historical Dogma Current Perspective
The mainstay of amblyopia
Patching Optimal refractive correction
Timing of refractive correction
and occlusion (patching or
Simultaneous Occlusion prescribed after gains
from optical treatment effect
Patching dosage for moderate
Generally, the more the better; usually ≥5–6 hours Start with 2 hours; can increase dosage if needed
Patching dosage for severe
Full-time or most waking hours Start with 6 hours; 2 hours is effective in some cases
Atropine penalization use Patching failures only First-line treatment as alternative to patching or for patching failures
Atropine penalization guidelines    
  Amblyopia severity Only for moderate amblyopia Both moderate & severe cases
  Age of child Only in young children Younger and older children
Age after which amblyopia can
no longer be treated
Approximately 6–9 years of age Upper age limit not established; albeit
generally greater VA gains if <7 years of age
Recurrence of amblyopia after
treatment cessation in 9 to <13-
year-old children
High likelihood of regression Vast majority (>90%) do not regress.

(Table 2 resource-

Treatment Approach

*Alternative treatments include atropine penalization of the sound eye 2 times per week or full-time wear of a Bangerter filter over the sound eye.

**Intense treatment is ≥ 6 hours of daily patching.

(Image resource


Today’s era is of virtual reality where many people are working from home. In such an age treatment are also developed likewise. Virtual-reality-based vision therapy is an exciting program to treat amblyopia. In this program, virtual reality is combined with a video game which has allowed them to experience three-dimensional depth perception. It is specifically designed for patients with amblyopia and strabismic patients of younger age.

(Virtual reality-based vision therapy)

(Image resource –


Once the treatment is started the vision starts to get better within a few weeks and may take months to get the best results. To completely stop amblyopia from affecting again one needs to use these treatments on a timely basis. To avoid lifelong vision problems early detection and treatment is mandatory.


A significant complication of amblyopia is complete vision loss if it is untreated. Other common complications are as follow:

  • Inability to read, play, drive or even perform simple tasks
  • Social life disturbances lead to embarrassment due to poor eye contact.
  • Development of negative self-image.
  • Low self-esteem is an individual.
  • Quality of life is decreased due to loss of stereoscopic vision which increases the risk of vehicular or operational accidents.
  • Employment opportunities are reduced eventually.
  • Complications from the ongoing treatment.
  • Strabismus development
  • Reverse amblyopia after treating the previous amblyopic condition.


There is no known prevention method for any type of amblyopia today.  However, to prevent symptoms from getting worse early detection and early treatment are the key. Efforts are taken to reduce the risk of developing amblyopic conditions one must have regular eye examination in infants, younger children, and adults with predetermined conditions like diabetes, stroke. The undertaking of the early and adequate treatment of ocular conditions like eye tumors, cataracts, corneal opacity is vital. Along with the treatment, it is mandatory to find a doctor with a specialization in Optometric Vision Therapy and Visual Perceptual learning techniques to prevent further complications and delays.


To do the exercises one must have a proper diagnosis and recommendation from the doctor. It can cause vision problems if not done under proper supervision. Better communication can be generated between the brain and eye with the help of eye exercise which strengthens the weaker eye. These exercises eventually lead to working of eyes together and improve vision. However, the effectiveness of exercises is undetermined but when combined with other therapies or treatment it has shown proven results. Medical experts may recommend glasses or patches or drops, in addition, to exercise which depends upon the underlying causes of amblyopia.

Effective exercises are shown in image given below:

(Image resource:

The exercises shown in the images are enjoyable tasks that can be performed while wearing a patch over the eye with stronger vision. Exercises in the above images are as follows:

  • Reading
  • Dot-to –dots
  • Puzzles
  • Coloring in the lines
  • Computer games (Tetris, virtual reality)

These exercise does not need many materials they are simple to implement and allocate also cost-effective except computer games/virtual reality. A medical provider may prescribe specific vision therapy eye exercises. In such types of exercises, it is also necessary to relax eyes in between by closing the eyes for a few minutes or looking at an object which is far away which would help from straining the eyes.


Severity, age, underlying condition, and treatment purpose are the depending factors on which the resolution of Amblyopia is decided. Treatment given on time for the specific condition is important. If the condition is not treated properly then in some of the cases amblyopia may present even after the correction of ocular media. Typically, before age of ten if the conditions are well treated or corrected the better are the outcomes. In case it is not detected and treated at an early age the vision may be permanently affected in the long term which may lead to vision loss.

Tips to care for children with amblyopia

One needs to support the child morally, emotionally, and physically by all means to overcome the lazy eye disease. This will help to develop their fine motor and gross skills even with the hindrances and boost their self-esteem. Three major keys need to be followed-

  • Eye care- The child should be taken to regular eye examination or undergo routine checkups once at six months age and the other at three years age and follow up all the appointments.
  • Stick to the treatment- One should always encourage the child to wear eyeglasses, patches even if it’s against their wishes. Convince them by giving some fun examples or stories to make them understand why it should do that way.
  • Strengthen the eye-Work together with the child as a team to read or do puzzles or virtual-reality-based games encouraging them to use lazy eyes while wearing the glasses or eye patch.


The prevalence rate of Amblyopia is two to three percent in infants globally. According to the global survey, there are nearly 36 million visually impaired around the globe. Recently insurance companies have also started covering treatment for amblyopic disease in the European region.

The sooner the better is the only chant to treat and get rid of Amblyopia over time. Diagnosed in routine checkups or a special visit to an ophthalmologist, Amblyopia can be detected. In addition, underlying cause identification also plays a key role. Observe the child, seek advice, follow, and stick to the treatment is the process to follow. Every child has a right to live joyfully and grow with confidence in society it is you who are responsible to boost the child to overcome Amblyopia. Everything is possible with the right actions along with proper caution.


  1. Wikipedia-,with%20focusing%20during%20early%20childhood.
  2. Google -
  3. NIH, National Institutes of health-
  4. American Academy of ophthalmology-
  5. Medclinic-
  6. Dovmed-






If you are in the market for buying new prescription eyeglasses or if trying to purchase online, then you are more likely to get confused with a lot of varieties available in front of you. Lenses are the most important element, and one should know more about the varieties of those before any purchase.
Eyeglasses are more admired than ever. Even it is more popular among those with perfect vision. It has become a style statement for many.Owning a good collection of glasses in your wardrobe will surely interest you.
In this post you will get a lot of information regarding different types and the different advantages of the lenses options those are available to you in the market. You should know what you are investing in so let us get into the details of those.
One of the basic things that you notice while shopping for a perfect pair of glasses are the frames. Selecting a suitable perfect pair of glasses is fun and a satisfying experience. How exactly will you make a correct choice out of these types of glass frames?
Eyeglass Frames for All Occasion

The style matters. The occasion in which you will style also matters. Different frames are suitable for various occasions and various purposes and yes there is no such fancy rule to choose one. More precisely one should select the frames depending upon their personal preference. You will get n number of choices in the market but to choose one for you is your choice. Make a statement out of these options you get. Try more so that you get a better understanding of the shape that suits you.

Full frame, semi-rimless and rimless frames are the primary types of frames. You get unique and different look and feel with these varieties of frames.
1. Full-Rimmed frames

If you are looking for a full-rim frame which gives you a bold look then go for it. The speciality about full rimmed frame is you have a fully enclosed frame. The frame is surrounded either by metal, plastic or any polycarbonate frame.The material of the frame can vary depending upon your preference. It can be either acetate or plastic or metal or even titanium. You can even get those in a variety of sizes, colours, and styles.
You can wear it with any casual outfits. This will give you a bold look with minimal efforts on other accessories.The colour and shapes enhance the appearance of these frames.
2. Rimless Frames

People who are very particular about a minimal look and a light weight feel kind of specs, Rimless frames are the best that they should go for. It gives you a modern look. You can find plenty of style. The only elements that you will observe in the rimless glasses are the temple arms, the Nose Bridge, and hinges. The lenses are mounted directly to the bridge or on the temples.
These frames will help you keep out of sight or in other words your specs won’t look like a dominating feature on your face. Unlike the Rimed frames there are not any lavishing appearance.You will find this in various metals, including titanium.
3. Semi-Rimless Frames.

Now that you are aware of both Rimmedand Rimless frames. It might happen you admire both the features and would like to try out for yourself the features of both the frames. Well, you got Semi-rimmed frames which will help to fulfil your desire. Partial from both the worlds of rimmed and rimless, this hybrid frames are more durable than the rimless frames. The other thing to note is they are affordable also. These semi-rimmed glasses will complete you with a dynamic and a sleek look. This might also make you look intelligent or smart. These are lighter weight than the full rimmed and durable than the rimless.
4. Low bridge frames

Say goodbye to the slippery glasses! For those who are getting irritated due to the continuous fall of the frames gliding down your nose bridge then worry not as low bridge frames are so designed to relax you from this issue.
TheLow Bridge Fit frames are designed for those who have low nose bridges. People with flat face and high cheek bones can opt for these kinds of frames. The frames are usually available in variousfavourite styles.
These are trendier and more fashionable at numerous occasions. The low bridge frames can avoid the glasses from touching your cheeks and even prevents from sliding down the nose or squeezing it. You will have an overall better glasses experience using the low bridge frames.

5. Wire Frames

Wire frames are the outstanding eyeglass frames. These products are usually termed as cosmopolitanchoice as it is often seen as sophisticated and attractive at the same time. The wire frames are light in weight than the plastics and are thus more comfortable to wear.
Usually, circular lens shapes fit these kinds of frames but you can also find it in heart shapes and variety of other mix patterns.

Some people always are careless about wearing spectacles usually because they think it doesn’t suit their face or maybe it is out of trend. See this kind of approach towards health will really harm you.
Prior to shopping for new glasses, it isalways good and essential to visit your eye doctor. Schedule an eye exam; get a prescription from an eye doctor. This will ensure what type of vision correction you need. Your optometrist will suggest you an eye prescription so that you can visit an optician to select the new glasses for you.
Before you get one for you let us see the various types of glasses (Both Prescription Glasses and Non- Prescription Glasses) and lenses,with their benefits and uses; so that you have a better understanding of what your doctor prescribes you. Here are the explanations for the same.
A) Prescription Glasses
1. Single vision: These are very common type of eyeglass lenses. These lenses are used to correct the vision at a specific distance. It can be a far sight distance or the near ones. If your optometrist says that you are near-sighted, farsighted, or have astigmatism then most probably you will be prescribed for single vision lenses.
2. Bifocal:These are multifocal which means 2 different powers are included in them. This partition in lens helps to correct distance vision and near vision. These lenses are usually prescribed for people who have problems with multiple visions.
3. Trifocal: The trifocal lenses are way similar tobifocals, but they also contain an additional power to correct the intermediate vision. This section can be used to view a computer screen. You can see a distinct line between these fields.
Initially it is a task to get adjusted with this type of lens but gradually one acquires the ability to adjust with the frames thus making comfortable vision.
The main difficulty with bifocal and trifocal lenses is that they always come along with a distinctive line due to which the sections of the lens create drastically different vision. There is no smoothness in the lens. While most people get used to these trifocal lenses without any issue. There have been lots of advancements done in these lenses and thus the progressive form of these lenses is called as the progressive lenses.
4. Progressive Lens:These lenses are suitable for anyone who needs bifocal or trifocals. The progressive lenses perform like bifocal or trifocal lenses but with a smoother transition between each section. The transition is smooth because there is no presence of intermediate lines. Due to which the vision becomes smoother and thus is the common choice of the public.

B) Non-prescription glasses: These types of glasses are also known as Fake glasses. In these categories of glasses, you will get a variety of range of preventive eye care, safety, and fashion.If you are suffering from digital eye strain, double vision, or getting headaches from your reading glasses,then get an eye exam and see if you need any prescription glasses.

The non-prescription glasses are mainly used as fashion accessories. However, they may also serve you as safety glasses at certain low-risk situations.

1. Digital Protection (Glasses with Blue Light Blocking):Computer glasses are becoming more popular among the crowd. These days many of them spend their time on computers, phones, and other digital screens. These devices have become a significant portion of their day. These glasses help your eyes to protect from the blue light that is emitted while using the digital screens and thus enhance to improve the sleep schedule.
2. Safety Glasses:The safety glasses are used by many professionals during construction work or at science laboratories, welding, plumbing, electrical work, auto repair and more. These are very cheap which can protect your eyes from getting harmed.
3. Sunglasses:If you need vision correction then get your goggles fitted with prescription safety glasses. In this way you get the effect of two lenses in one frame.
Sunglasses also come with polarized or UV protection treatment.
4. Reading Glasses: This type of glasses can be used with or with prescription of doctor. They are used to improve your visions to see things, read books, newspapers, also can be used while on laptops and phone screens. They are also known as number
Types of Lenses
There are varieties of lens options that you get while you shop for choosing your glasses.
1. Glass Lenses: Glass lens gives an excellent visual sharp sight but are very prone to breaking and it can get damaged due to cracking. These are unpopular these days due to its weight and safety issues. These are mostly available now in plastic form.
2. Plastic Lenses: It is common to find plastic lenses these days. As the material is cheaper, lighter, and safer so you will find the lenses affordable and comfortable.

The high –Index plastic lenses are lighter than the plastic lenses.
3. Polycarbonate and Trivex lenses: You will find these lenses used in majority of sport goggles and safety glasses and even in children’s eyewear. As the material trivex is very light weight and is also durable plastic, the lenses made from these materials are also thinner and durable.
4. Aspheric lenses: Most aspheric lenses also are high-index lenses. The combination of an aspheric design with high-index lens materials creates a lens that is noticeably slimmer, thinner, and lighter than conventional glass or plastic lenses.Aspheric lenses result in sharper images, especially at wider apertures, and can also be designed to minimise other optical imperfections such as chromatic aberrations. Aspherical lenses are more challenging to manufacture, which makes them more expensive.

5. High definition lenses: These are a little expensive than the traditional lenses because of the advanced technology used to create wave frontlenses,the visualperceptiveness gets to the next level.
6. Photochromatic Lenses: These lenses are commonly known as Transitions. These are one of the popular choices. Theycan darken when they are exposed to UV rays because of which it eliminates the need for sunglasses. One will serve both the purpose. These lenses are available in all types of prescription lens.
7. Scratch-Resistant Coating: If you are to apply a clear starch coating to the front and back of the lenses then the probability of the durability to increase is high. You can simply get it added with a few additional costs for all the lenses that you use.
8. Anti-reflective coating: The anti-reflective coatingeradicates the reflections from the lenses. Thus improves the comfort and visibility especially when you are driving or using screens at night. This technique helps your lenses to be almost invisible such that others hardly see these lenses. They will now be able to see your eyes through your lenses clearly.
9. Anti- fog coating: People living in cold climate are aware of how much their lenses get affected during use. Anti-fog coating effectively eradicated this fogging effect. Permanent anti-fog treatments are also available, but you can also opt for the drops that you need to apply weekly on your lenses by yourself.
10. UV Blocking lens: As the skin needs sunblock similarly does our eyes. The UV blocking lens act as a sunblock for our eyeballs. This lens reduces the amount of UV rays that reaches our eyes. The exposures to UV rays are harmful for our eyes. It can lead to the development of cataracts.

Knowing about the varieties of lenses will help you choose the best fit for you.

Care Your Eyeglasses:

Now being aware of all the varieties of lenses and frames, if you fail to protect your lenses and do not use it properly then it won’t be durable too. So here are some great tips for you so that you take utmostcare of your lenses and frames to help them last long.
• Rinse: Rinse your glasses with water before cleaning or wiping them. The tiny particles of dust or dirt can settle on your lens, and if you tend to wipe those around on a dry lens, it can be abrasive.
• Use cleaning liquid: You can use cleaning liquid for lenses to clean the frames. Make use of those several times when the lenses get messy. It can keep your eyeglasses clean from any kind of dust and also protect it from getting blurry which may tend to affect your vision. Also, sometimes it leads to headache and other problems.
• Spray Carefully: Make sure that you do not use harsh chemicals on your eyeglass lenses. These sprays or a harsh chemical contains ammonia which can easily tear off the coating on the lens. Thus, making the lens reduce its efficiency or life.
• Air Dry: Allow to dry the glasses in air itself. In this way you can keep any materials getting on the lens. You can also use a clean lint-free cloth to do so.
• Use of right cloth: Do not use any kind of tissues or papers to clean your dry lenses. Your skin might find it softer and smoother, but it might scratch your lenses giving behind a mark on it. If you keep on doing this wrongly then over a period you will see the scratches on your lenses.
• Grip Firmly:Make sure the frames are gripped properly across the bridge of the nose.So, hold it properly while cleaning to avoid any bends on the frame so that you don’t make the frame getting uncomfortable.
• Store at Proper Place:If you are not wearing the glasses then make sure you keep them in a safer place where there is not any chance of it getting scratched or bent or broken. Keep it inside the case or even in the microfiber pouches.

Eye-wear:-Do’s and Don’ts

• While the lenses are dry try not to wipe them off.
• Don’t wipe lenses with any kind of tissue, paper towel, or paper napkin. They might have a rough surface.
• Don’t use spit or saliva to clean, as it may contain oil or any other thing which can damage your lens. Similarly exhaling on your lens is also not recommended for cleaning.
• Keep your glasses away from ammonia, vinegar, and bleach like chemicals.
• Avoid keeping the glasses in a hot car or on the top of the dashboard.
• Prefer a hard-shell case with the right size for your glasses.
• Don’t put you glasses inside your bag or pocket.
• Always lay glasses down the lenses facing upwards.
• Use both the hands to put glasses on and while taking them off.
• Avoid touching your lenses.
• Don’t rest your glasses on your head when you are not using it.
• Avoid using glasses when you are showering, sleeping, and swimming or doing some sports activities.
Follow these tips, so that you keep your super clean specs behind. If you spend a little more time to find the right pair of glasses, then you can perfectly express your style with the help of these above tips that has been shared in this post.




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Eye Donation

Eye Donation

In India, we have an estimated 4.6 million people who suffer from corneal heart disease and can be treated with the help of one eye which is made possible by corneal transplantation. When the cornea becomes affected due to illness, injury, infection, or any other reason, vision is greatly reduced.  More than 90% of corneal transplants are performed successfully and help restore vision in people with corneal blindness. A corneal transplant can make a big difference in the lives of babies born with a damaged cornea.

Facts about eye Donation

  • Eyes can only be given after death.
  • The eyes should be removed within 4-6 hours of death.
  • Eyes can only be removed by a registered doctor.
  • The eye bank team will go to the home or hospital of the deceased and remove the eye.
  • Eye removal does not delay burying as the whole process takes 20 to 30 minutes.
  • Extraction of the eye does not cause distortion.
  • Maintaining the confidentiality of the identity of the donor and the recipient.

Who can donate their eyes?

Eye donors can be of any age or gender. Eye patients, diabetic patients, high blood pressure patients, asthma patients and infectious disease patients can donate eyes.

People with infectious diseases such as AIDS, hepatitis B, and C, leukemia, septicemia, acute leukemia (blood cancer), fever, cholera, meningitis, and encephalitis cannot be taken lightly.

When is the donation made?

Surgical removal of eye tissue is performed immediately after death, ensuring that the tissue is in the best possible condition for transplantation. It also ensures that there is no delay in the funeral arrangements.

How long after donation should a cornea transplant be performed?

Depending on the method of corneal protection, the corneal transfer is usually performed within 4 days.

Will the donor family pay or receive the fee?

No, it is illegal to buy and sell eyes, organs, and human tissues. Eye Bank charges every fee related to the purchase of eyes.

How can a person become a donor?

The most important thing anyone can do is to tell their family and legal representative. Many states now require families to give the option to donate in the event of the death of a loved one. Families can agree to donate. It is very helpful if they know in advance that they want to keep their eyes open. The donor card can serve as an indication of intent for family/legal and hospital representatives as eye donors.

Is it possible to donate living eyes?

There is no easy answer to this question. However, if someone’s eye has been removed for some reasons,  but their cornea is healthy, a cornea can be used for this possible occurrence. However, there is no precedent for charity among people in other situations. There is another rare case where one can help the cornea where one eye has potential vision, but corneal vision is needed to restore active vision, while the other eye is blind to a clean cornea. In this case, after a detailed discussion with the patient about the risks and benefits of the procedure, a clean cornea can be removed and transferred to the eye.

Blindness and the burden of disease

An estimated 35 million people in developing countries are either already blind or have become blind. Most can be done with the proper intervention. At least 3 million of them can regain their vision after a heart transplant, and half of these patients (2%) are children under the age of 12.


About half of the world’s blind population lives in India, while the actual number of blind people in India reaches 15 million. Of these, 6.8 million are corneal blind with at least one eye with vision less than 6/60. At least one million people are blind in both eyes, and this bilateral corneal blindness is reversible.


Of these, at least 3 million people may benefit from corneal transplantation, which is an alternative to the cornea through surgery. To control such a large number of patients and effectively deal with the additional patients in this group, 150,000 corneal transplants are required every year in India alone.


Important points

For relatives of the deceased

To give eyes, the relatives of the deceased should perform the following actions


  • Always turn off the fan if the body is up.
  • Place the pillow under the deadhead and raise the head slightly.
  • Contact your nearest Eye Bank soon.
  • Provide the correct address, custom ID, and phone number to the Eye Bank team so that the site can be easily searched.
  • If you get a death certificate from a doctor, have it ready.
  • One eye can be granted only with the written permission of the relatives and in the presence of two witnesses.


After eye donation

  • The family of the donor receives a certificate of appreciation from Eye Bank.
  • Donated eyes are taken to the eye bank by trained staff and the eyes are examined.
  • Tests are done and the tissue is sent to a corneal surgeon.
  • Specifically refers to the waiting list and invites the recipient for corneal transplant surgery.
  • Performs corneal transplant surgery.
  • To ensure the success of the grafting, the recipient is periodically followed

Services of the eye bank

  • Presence of full-time trained staff to answer calls.
  • Providing high-quality corneal examination and trained staff for testing.
  • Run corneal research with eyes unsuitable for grafts, discover new technologies, improve maintenance methods, and train corneal surgeons.
  • Raises awareness among the public about eye donation and eye banking.
  • Creating and establishing a network of eye donation centers.

Myth and Facts to Donate the eye.

Myth: The donor’s eye distorts the donor’s face, creating a hole in the eye socket that eventually distorts the face.

Fact: Absolutely not.  Eye donation does not harm the face as the prosthesis is inserted into the socket.

Myth: When I die in this life, giving up means I will be born blind in the next life.

Fact: Donating someone’s eye is a very good and benevolent act and the fruit of this action in the next life can be obtained only if one believes in the law of karma. This myth has no basis in religion or logic.

Myth: When we go to a doctor for eye checkup and we sit before him / her, doctors will not try to save me if I become seriously ill.

Fact: Absolutely wrong. After taking the oath, every doctor is committed to saving lives. They will not risk your life or health to help another patient.

Myth: My family will be unhappy with my decision to donate my eyes.

Fact: You will be amazed at how much your loved one accepts and appreciates your choices when you tell them that you are thinking of leaving your eyes for donation after death. In fact, you will be praised for your respect, and your actions will encourage friends and family to keep an eye out.

Myth: The eyes of Indian donors are not suitable for corneal transplantation.

Fact: All eyes can be used regardless of ethnicity, race, caste, religion, or creed. The potential of each eye is assessed individually under strict guidelines by a trained eye care professional. All donated eyes are used for either vision restoration, transplantation, or research that will ultimately help millions of blind people.

Myth: Corneal transplant is a complicated process with a low success rate.

Fact: Corneal transplantation is a routine procedure performed around the world and has given the gift of vision to millions of blind people around the world. Of all organ transplants, corneal transplantation is considered the most successful.

Myth: Donated eyes can be sold.

Fact: Eye care is completely voluntary. The sale or purchase of the human eye or any other organ is illegal and a punishable offense under the Human Organ Transplantation Act (THOA, 1994). Eye banks must establish and document a delivery system that is fair, equitable, and equitable to all patients served by the eye bank. In fact, the eye bank covers every cost related to corneal reconstruction.

Myth: If I promise to do charity work, then after my death there is no need for any more consent.

Fact: Even though you promise to donate with your own eyes, the consent of your family members (relatives) is required to complete the work. It is up to them not only to report your death to Eye Bank but also to complete the required process of donating your eyes before you die.

Myth: You can’t blindfold me if I don’t make a vow.

Fact: If your relative informs Eye Bank about your death, and wishes to donate your eyes, Eye Bank staff will retrieve your eyes.

List of Major Eye Donation Centres in New Delhi

NEW DELHI- 110017
Phone: 29250952; 29251951; 29252370

NEW DELHI-110029
Phone:011- 26593060, 26588500; 26864851; 26569461, M-9868398404

    NEW DELHI- 110002  011-43524444; 43528888

Centre for Sight – Eye Bank
At Centre for Sight Eye Group Hospital
B05/24, Safdarjung Enclave
New Delhi-110 029
Phone: 011-45738888, 41644000

Incharge Eye Bank
Rotary Central Eye Bank
Sir Ganga Ram Eye Hospital
Rajinder Nagar
NEW DELHI – 110 060
Phone: 25721800, 25781837

Eye Bank Incharge
Sewa Eye Bank
C/o. M.M. Eye Tech. Hospital
29, Lala Lajpat Rai Marg
Lajpat Nagar-III
NEW DELHI-110 024
Phone: 011-29841919, M-9212035119

List of Major Eye Donation Centres in Uttar Pradesh

MEERUT- 250004
Phone: 2763133; M-09837786980

J-12/9D, Ramkatora
VARANASI- 221001
(0542) 2333272; 2333284 m-9415228475 ( Dr. S.K. Sah)

Eye Bank Incharge
Phone: 0542-2307590, 2367568

Abhinav Drishti Eye Hospital
LUCKNOW- 226006
Phone: (0522) 2381919; 2322669; 2335122

Eye Bank Incharge
Phone: (0591)- 2450681, 2454650, 2477800, M-9412241919

BAREILLY- 243001
(0581)- 2582014 – 25

NOIDA- 201301
(0120)- 4068800; 2535782

    Phone: 0132- 2663779, 2663410, M-9359200744

Incharge Eye Bank
Teerthanker Mahaveer Hospital & research Centre
Teerthanker Mahveer Medical College & Research Centre
Delhi Road, Pakwada
Phone: 0591-2360077, 2360555 M-9756911114

Incharge Eye Bank
Post Graduate Dept. Of Ophthalmology
Swami Vivekanand Subharti University
Subharti Puram, N.H-58
Delhi-Haridwar By pass Road
MEERUT – 250 005

List of Major Eye Donation Centres in Madya Pradesh

M.K. International Eye Bank
Sai Sampada
Terrace Floor, 16, choti Khajrani, MR-9,
Phone: 0731-4075919, M-9406631919,

Sewa Sadan Eye Hospital Trust
Behind Civil Hospital
Sant Hirdaram Nagar
BHOPAL – 462030
Phone: 0755- 2643581, 2641156, 4244767, 2641200

NEEMUCH- 458441
Phone: 07423-221526; 220122

Phone: 2427301, 2514628

Phone: 07412-232556

0751-2423350, 4070921







Occupational Hygiene is the discipline of anticipating, recognizing, evaluating and controlling health hazards in the working environment to protect worker’s health and well-being and safeguard the community at large.”

 Introduction about Industrial Hygiene

As we humans care for our families and our friends, we also care for each other in our cities, in our villages, at school and home. Similarly, we care for each other at work.

We care for each other at work by protecting each other’s health, protecting each other from hazards or dangers at the workplace. Hazards such as Chemical hazards (harmful liquids and gases), biological hazards (bacteria and viruses) and physical hazards (too much noise and heat) are the parameters that we keep protecting from.

We also protect each other from the hazards of repeated movements, such as sewing, assembling parts, and typing where we make the same movement again and again. We also protect each other from the mental and emotional stress at work that can cause illnesses and injuries. The reason that we protect each other is very simple because at the end of the day all of us want to go home in good health. To care for ourselves, our families and friends are what we do as a human.

At work, the name for all these protection is called INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE. Which is also called OCCUPATIONAL HYGIENE but it all means the same. Both industrial and occupational mean WORK. And hygiene means protecting health. In all other words, we call it protecting people’s health at work.

When we do work we also plan and study the dangers related to the work. So that we can decrease those dangers or try minimizing them as early as possible or even remove those dangers completely. No matter what kind of work we do, no matter how big or how small it is.

Overview of Industrial Hygiene

People’s breathing and health can be harmed by possible hazards such as dust or spray painting. These hazards can occur at large operations such as construction sites or industrial painting sites , at small and medium operations and with one person working alone. But regardless of the size and the type of work, the people who are key to this are personal hygienists. They are the champions that protect workers. They are the eyes and ears of the workplace. The ones who find help hazards and correct them. So how do they do it?

First, they start with expert, scientific knowledge in chemistry, biology, physics and mathematics, and toxicology or poisons and epidemiology. Then they focus on all the scientific training and strong ethical standards and bring all these skills into the workplace. In the end, industrial hygienists are about people listening to people, talking to people, working with people, protecting people from workplace hazards. Together, workers and industrial hygienists form a team where everyone plays an equal part, where industrial hygienists bring their technical knowledge to the workplace also where workers bring their knowledge and expertise about their work, their values, and their relationships.

This team shares one purpose something that we all value, that everyone understands how to protect themselves and each other at work so that everyone goes home safe and healthy after the job.

Industrial Hygiene works with everything related to work, like dealing with workers, managers and supervisors, budgets and costs, equipment and materials, production.

First, industrial hygiene connects with worker’s physical safety with environmental health. This protects not only workers but also everyone in the surrounding community. Industrial hygiene unites workers and managers, so that everyone comes together to protect each other. Industrial hygiene also links healthy workers with a healthy business, with fewer illnesses, fewer injuries, and fewer costs, all creating greater health and greater productivity for everyone.

But most importantly, industrial hygiene connects work and home. If everyone’s health is protected at work, those same workers can care for and protect their families when they return home.


Central Industrial Hygiene Association (CIHA) was formed by professional individuals and was registered under the Bombay Public Charitable Trust Act 1950 dated 31/08/2004. It’s goal is to educate and influence society to adopt safety, health and hygiene policies, practices and procedures that prevent and control occupational health in various occupations.

One of the main priorities of any workplace is to keep its employees safe and healthy. Robust industrial hygiene and chemical safety program helps reduce hazard levels in the workplace, and it gives employees the tools and protection they need to stay safe when they encounter hazards.

Today hundreds of millions of workers across the globe remain at risk from work hazards. Over two million people worldwide die each year due to work-related illness and injuries, with 160 million new cases of work-related illness occurring each year. In addition to all the human suffering, these illnesses and injuries create an economic loss of 4% of the world’s gross national product. But with the improved use of industrial hygiene, we could use the money to improve people’s lives, improve their work conditions, and improve productivity where they work.

In India, the Labour Ministry formulates national policies on occupational safety and health in factories and docks with advice and assistance from the Directorate General of Factory Advice Service and Labour Institutes (DGFASLI) and enforces its Policies through inspectorates of factories and inspectorates of dock safety. DGFASLI is the technical arm of the Ministry of Labour & Employment, Government of India, and advises the factories on various problems concerning safety, health, efficiency, and well-being of the persons at workplaces. The DGFASLI provides technical support in formulating rules, conducting occupational safety surveys, and also for conducting occupational safety training programs.

Why is Occupational Hygiene important?

This can be illustrated by comparing statistics. In the UK,

  • The number of deaths due to work activities is about 250 per year
  • Deaths due to road traffic accidents about 2,500 per year
  • Deaths due to work-related cancer and respiratory disease is estimated at 13,000 per year

How can we improve Industrial Hygiene or Occupational Hygiene- where we work?

The American Industrial Hygiene Association, AIHA can help. AIHA connects industrial hygienists and workers around the world, providing a network of experts where people can come together, identify problems, and find solutions. In addition, AIHA provides education and technical expertise, helping governments, organizations, and companies to develop the policies and practices that protect workers, methodologies applicable for a different type of toxic hazard, etc.

A healthy workforce means fewer days off, happier and more productive employees, and a reduced risk of compensation cost. Occupational hygienists have been involved historically with changing the perception of society about the nature and extent of hazards and preventing exposures in the workplace and communities. Many occupational hygienists work day-to-day with industrial situations that require control or improvement to the workplace situation. However larger social issues affecting whole industries have occurred in the past. Occupational hygienists have become more engaged in understanding and managing exposure risks to consumers from products with regulations.

The social role of occupational hygiene

Anticipating, recognizing, evaluating, and controlling are the various steps involved in this process. Many of these issues have required coordination over several years of many medical and paraprofessionals in detecting and then characterizing the nature of the issue, both in terms of the hazard and in terms of the risk to the workplace and ultimately to society. This has involved occupational hygienists in research, collection of data, and developing suitable and satisfactory control methodologies.

Environmental Control reduces exposure by reducing the concentration of toxic in the workplace environment. This includes substitution, isolation, enclosure, local ventilation, dilution ventilation, wet methods, and good housekeeping.

Personal protection prevents or reduces exposure by providing the barrier between the worker and the workplace exposure.

We may have an enclosure, that is an enclosed room or equipment, and place it under negative pressure. Typical techniques are enclosed hazardous operations such as sample points sometimes sealed rooms, sewer, and ventilation. Analyzers and instruments can be used to observe inside. There are some wet methods used to minimize the contamination with dust. The typical technique involved are clean vessels chemically versus sandblasting, use water sprays for cleaning so that the dust may get deposited, clean are frequently good housekeeping.

What is occupational health and safety?

Occupational Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of the worker and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (WHO, 1946)

It involves the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental, and social well-being of workers in all occupations. The protection of workers in their employment from risks resulting from factors adverse to health. The placing and maintenance of workers in an occupational environment adapted to physical and mental needs.

Occupational health and safety management:

Health and safety management involves taking practical steps or measures to ensure that employees are free from all forms of injuries and dangers to their health at the workplace.

It involves implementing precautions that prevent/protect workers from injuries or dangers to their safety and health.

The management of employees’ health is a dual responsibility between employers and employees. The employer will provide all the tools and the employee will have to comply.

Objectives of Occupational health

  • To maintain and promote worker’s health and working capacity at work.
  • To improve the working environment and make work conducive to workers.
  • To develop work organizations and working cultures in a direction that supports health and safety at work.
  • To promote a positive social climate and smooth operation to enhance organizational productivity.

What are hazards?

Hazard is a potential source of harm or adverse health effect on a person or persons.

Or any substance or material that can cause harm to a person or group of persons. Occupational hazards, therefore, refer to those aspects of the work and work environment that tends to cause harm/ danger to people or employees. In ensuring employee health and safety at work, employers should put in measures to prevent or reduce the availability of these hazards from the workplace.

What are the risks?

While Risks refer to the likelihood or chance (high or low) that a person or group of persons may be harmed or suffer adverse effects or be exposed to a hazard. For example- if there was a spill of water on a floor then that water would present a slipping hazard to persons passing through it. However, if access to that area was prevented by a physical barrier then the hazards would remain though the risk would be minimized.

 Impacts of Risks:

Safety hazards are those aspects of the work environment that have the potential to cause immediate and very violent harm to the individual. Anything that can cause death or cause an individual to lose part of his body is a safety hazard. Ex.: machinery, equipment, acidic and highly flammable substances, etc.

Health hazards are those aspects of the work environment that have the potential to cause harm to the individual slowly and cumulatively. These hazards can take years before the effects are noticed. Such a hazard gradually deteriorates the employee’s health. Health hazards are latent and go unnoticed until a later point in time.

Ex: poisonous gases, long hours of work, noise, high temperature, heavy workloads, etc. Also, short-term and long-term noises can lead to hearing loss for workers.

Biological hazards are associated with working with animals, people, or infectious plants materials. Work in schools, day care facilities, colleges and universities, hospitals, laboratories, nursing homes, etc. may expose you to biological hazards which can cause a variety of health effects ranging from skin irritation and allergies to infections (e.g., tuberculosis, AIDS), cancer and so on. Biological hazards include blood and other body fluids, bacteria and viruses, fungi, insect bites, and animal and bird droppings which can cause food poisoning, tetanus, respiratory infections, or parasite infection.

Physical hazards are the factors within the environment that harm the body without necessarily touching it. These include electromagnetic waves, high exposure to sunlight or ultraviolet rays, extreme temperatures (hot and cold), constant loud noise.

Ergonomic hazards occur when the type of work, body positions, and working conditions put a strain on your body. They are the hardest to spot since you don’t always immediately notice the strain on your body or the harm these hazards pose. For example, proper ergonomics can help prevent carpal tunnel syndrome, tendonitis, and lower back injuries. Short-term exposure may result in sore muscles the next day or the days ahead, but long-term exposures can result in serious long-term illness. These include improperly adjusted workstations and chairs, frequently lifting, poor posture, awkward movements, especially if they are repetitive.

Chemical Hazards are present when a worker is exposed to any chemical preparation in the workplace in any form (solid, liquid, or gas). Some are safer than others, but to some workers who are more sensitive to chemicals, even common chemical solutions can cause illness, skin irritation, or breathing problems. Some of them are liquid cleaning products, paints, acids, pesticides, weedicides, etc. Especially if such chemicals are in an unlabelled container. Vapors and fumes come from welding materials.

Gases like smokes from burning substances such as weeds and plants, fumes from the exhaust of engines, smoke from cigarettes, etc. Flammable substances like petrol, kerosene and other explosive chemicals.

Work/ organizational hazards activities at the workplace that could cause stress (short-term effects) and strain (long-term effects)

These include workload demands, workplace violence, workplace bullying, lack of respect, and lack of flexibility, lack of social interaction and relations, and also sexual harassment.

Occupational hygiene as a career

Examples of occupational hygiene careers include:

  • Compliance officer on behalf of regulatory agency.
  • Professional working on behalf of the company for the protection of the workforce.
  • A consultant working on behalf of companies.
  • Researcher performing laboratory or field occupational hygiene work.


  1.  “WPRO | Occupational health”. Retrieved 2015-10-30.
  2.  “BS OHSAS 18001 Occupational Health and Safety”. BSI Group. Retrieved 2013-02-15.







Contact lenses are a great choice for almost anyone who needs vision correction but does not want to wear glasses all the time or is not willing to undergo surgery for vision correction. Most of us often find it quite hard to understand our own contact lens prescription. We keep going to our doctor at regular follow-ups, get a new prescription but don’t pay much attention to what’s written on it. But have you ever wondered what all those numbers really mean? Your contact lens prescription has various abbreviations, values and terms that may seem confusing and look incomprehensible, but once you understand what each term indicates, understanding your prescription would seem quite easy.


First of all, it is vital to know that the prescription for contact lenses is completely different from the prescription for glasses, even though they may be issued together. So, even if you already have a prescription for your glasses, you will still be needing a contact lenses prescription before you start using them. This is because the glasses are placed almost 12 millimetres from your eyes, while the contact lenses are placed directly on the surface of the eyes. So, if you want to wear both contact lenses and eyeglasses, you will need two separate prescriptions.




Here are some basics about contact lenses that you should know if you are interested in wearing contact lenses:


  1. The material of Contact Lens


The first and foremost feature that comes to mind while choosing contact lenses is the material that suits your needs the most. On the basis of the material, there are broadly 5 types of contact lenses:


Soft lenses: These lenses are designed from soft plastics known as hydrogels. Hydrogel is a water containing plastic material. Soft lenses are extremely thin, pliable and sit smoothly over the front surface of the eye.


Silicone hydrogel lenses:These lenses are made from an advanced version of the soft lens material that helps more oxygen to pass through the lens surface and reach the eye. Currently, silicone-hydrogel lenses are the most popular type of contact lenses.


Rigid Gas permeable/ Gas Permeable lenses: Also called GP or RGP lenses, these contact lenses retain their shape on the eye and are rigid in nature. This makes them extremely useful for correcting astigmatism and other refractive errors. Typically, the gas permeable lenses are smaller in diameter than the soft lenses and are composed of materials that are highly oxygen permeable. Being rigid, it usually takes some time for the eyes to adjust to these lenses when you first start using them. Once the eyes get adapted to the material, most people who use GP lenses find them to be as comfortable and hassle free as the soft lenses.

Hybrid contact lenses: As suggested by their name, these lenses have a central zone made from rigid gas permeable material and a peripheral zone made from hydrogel or silicone hydrogel material. This design is created to provide the comfort of silicone hydrogel or soft lenses and at the same time provide crystal clear optics of the RGP or GP lenses.


PMMA lenses (PolyMethyl MethAcrylate): These are the lenses that are designed from a rigid plastic material that is not oxygen permeable, making them look like from GP rigid contact lens. PMMA lenses were quite common several years ago, but they have now been replaced by the GP lenses.



  1. Wearing time of the contact lens


On the basis of the wearing time, contact lenses are broadly divided into two categories :

Daily wear contact lenses: these are the contact lenses that can be used only once and should be removed before going to sleep.

Extended wear contact lenses: these are the lenses that could be used for a limited number of days and can be worn overnight. Sometimes the term continuous wear contact lenses is used for extended wear lenses that can be worn for up to 30 days.

  1. Frequency of replacement

The contact lenses need to be replaced frequently in order to prevent contamination, avoid build up of lens deposits and reduce risk of infections.

Based on how frequently they should be discarded, soft lenses have these general classifications:


Types of Lenses

Daily disposable lenses:-     These need to be discarded every day.

Disposable lenses:-  These need to be discarded after every 2 weeks or earlier.

Frequent replacement lenses These need to be discarded every month or quarterly. Discard monthly or quarterly.

Traditional (reusable) lenses:-        These usually need to be discarded twice a year.

The GP/RGP lenses do not need to be discarded as often as the soft lenses as they are more resistant to lens build up. Typically, GP lenses can be used for a year before replacing them.


  1. Design of contact lens

Both silicone hydrogel and hydrogel contact lenses are available in a huge variety of designs such, depending on the need. Here are the most common designs:

Spherical contact lenses are the lenses that have the same power across the entire optical part of the lens to correct the refractive error.

Toric soft contact lenses have different power along different meridians of the contact lens so as to correct astigmatism in addition to correcting myopia/hyperopia.

Bifocal contact lenses with age, a person’s ability to focus from far to near reduces. This condition is known as presbyopia. So, if a person has difficulty with both near and far vision, he/she needs bifocal lenses. These lenses have the power for both the near and far vision in one lens. They are available in the form of gas permeable and soft lenses.

Multifocal contact lenses are the lenses that have different zones of power for near and far vision to correct presbyopia along with myopia/hyperopia. Sometimes, multifocal lenses may be prescribed to correct astigmatism.

Cosmetic contact lenses these contact lenses are used for cosmetic purposes with the intention of intensifying or changing the colour of the eyes


  1. 5. Contact lens with advanced features

Certain conditions of the eyes require contact lenses with more advanced features. These include:

Contact lenses for dry eye: In some people, contact lenses can cause the eyes to dry out. This is known as contact lens-induced dry eyes (CLIDE) and this occurs because the thin layer of contact lens material blocks out oxygen flow to the eyes. When there is inadequate supply of oxygen, the eyes find it hard to develop natural tears, leading to dry eyes. There are contact lenses that are specifically designed to allow more oxygen to reach the eye, thereby reducing the impact of CLIDE. The commonly prescribed contact lenses for dry eyes include daily disposable contact lenses, silicone hydrogel contact lenses and low water contact lenses. Daily disposable contact lenses reduce the risk of discomfort due to build up of dirt deposits as they are discarded at the end of the day. Silicone hydrogel lenses are extremely comfortable to wear and they pass up to 5 times more oxygen to the eyes as compared to the hydrogel lenses. Most people think that contact lenses with high water content are better for dry eyes. However, that is not the case. Contact lenses with a high water content tend to draw out the eye’s natural tears as well leading to dry eyes. Also, lenses with high water content can become more dehydrated. So, people with dry eyes may be prescribed contact lenses with a relatively low water content.

Prosthetic Lenses: These lenses are specially designed for people in whom the eye has been disfigured due to an injury or a disease. These lenses are opaque soft lenses that mask the disfigurement and are custom made so as to match the appearance and features of the other, unaffected eye.

Custom lenses: For some people, the conventional contact lenses do not work and they need made-to-order contact lenses that are specifically designed for the individual eye size, shape and visual requirements. These lenses are called custom lenses.

UV-inhibiting lenses: There are some soft contact lenses that help in protecting the eyes from the harmful ultraviolet rays of the shun, which can lead to various eye problems such as cataract. However, since the contact lenses do not cover the entire eye, it is advisable to still wear UV-blocking sunglasses when stepping outdoors, if you want the best possible protection from the sun.

Scleral lenses: Scleral lenses are large diameter, gas permeable lenses that are specifically designed to treat irregularities in the cornea such as keratoconus and presbyopia. These lenses are designed so that they vault over the entire corneal area and they sit on the white part of the eye, known as the sclera. In this way, the scleral lenses replace the irregular cornea with a smooth and perfect corneal surface free of irregularities to correct visual problems that are caused by corneal irregularities such as keratoconus. Another interesting feature of the scleral lens is that the space between the back surface of the scleral lens and the cornea acts as a fluid reservoir which provides comfort to those individuals who have severe dry eyes and are otherwise unable to wear contact lenses.

Coloured Contact Lenses

Ideally, the colour of contact lenses should have no effect on your vision. However, it is always best to obtain a prescription for them so that your doctor prescribes the ones that fit your eyes properly. Following are the commonly available types of coloured contact lenses:

Visibility tinted lenses – these are the type of coloured lenses that have a slightly tinted colour, (mostly blue) which helps you to see them while you are handling the lens when it is in its case.

Enhancer lenses – Enhancer lenses are those lenses that have a medium tint to accentuate or enhance the natural colour of your eyes.

Opaque lenses – these are the lenses that are made from a solid ring of colour around the iris and they mask the natural colour of your eyes. These lenses will mask your natural eye colour. They are made with a solid ring of colour around the iris and a clear circle in the middle so you can see. Opaque lenses available in a wide range of colours.



Astigmatism is a common vision condition which causes blurry vision. This happens when the front cover of the eye, known as the cornea, is shaped irregularly due to the curvature of the lens inside the eye. This irregularly shaped cornea then prevents the light from getting focussed properly on to the retina (the back of the eye). As a result, the vision becomes blurry. This can also cause headaches and eye discomfort.

Astigmatism usually occurs along with other refractive errors such as near-sightedness (myopia) and far-sightedness (hyperopia). The exact cause of astigmatism is not known, however, there are many factors that can increase the risk, such as a family history of astigmatism.


Before applying your contact lenses, make it a point to always wash your hands thoroughly. Avoid using scented soaps and soaps containing lanolin and other moisturizing agents as these can get adhered to your lens.

Make it a bit, to begin with the same eye every time. This way you can avoid mixing up which lens goes on which eye. Here are some essential steps that you should follow while applying your contact lenses:

Shake the lens case gently to ensure that the lens loosens. Never pull the lens with your finger as doing so might damage it.

Carefully slide the lens out from its case and into the palm of your hand. Rinse your contact lens with the contact lens solution.

Place the lens on the tip of your middle or index finger. Make sure your finger is dry.

Using the thumb and fingers of the other hand, pull your upper eyelid upwards and your lower eyelid downwards at the same time.

Maintain your gaze upward or forward and position the lens on your eye.

Close your eyes slowly and roll your eyes in a full circle. This will help the lens to settle. To ensure that your lens is well centred on the eye, take a close look in the mirror. If centred correctly, your eye should feel comfortable and your vision should be clear.



Make sure your hands are clean before taking off your contact lenses.

For soft contact lenses, look sideways or upward while gently pulling down the contact lens on the lower eyelid. Using your finger, carefully move the lens towards the white of the eye. Then you can gently pinch the lens together using your thumb  and index finger and take it off. Make it a point to keep your fingernails short until you have mastered contact lens removal. This will prevent scratching or damaging your eye.

To remove GP lenses, open your eyes wide open. Using the finger of the other hand, pull the skin outside the lateral aspect of your eye (area between your upper and lower eyelid). Pull it outwards towards your ear keeping your eye wide open. Your lens should pop out easily into the palm of your hand. Alternatively, you can use a silicone device specifically designed for removing GP lenses.


Wearing your eye makeup on and taking it off can be somewhat annoying when you first start wearing contact lenses. Here are some important tips that you can follow:

Make it a habit to always put your contact lenses on and then apply the makeup.

Use non-allergenic makeup only.

Keep your eye closed while applying eye makeup.

Brush off any excess eyeshadow powder before opening your eye.

Before removing your makeup, wash and dry your hands.

First, remove your contact lenses carefully without bumping them into any makeup.

Once you have removed your contact lenses, use your makeup remover to take your makeup off.

Make sure that you replace your eye makeup frequently and do not share your makeup brush and other products with others.



Make sure you always wash your hands and dry them thoroughly before you handle your contact lenses.

Make it a habit to regularly and carefully clean your contact lenses as suggested by your optometrist/ophthalmologist.

Always store your lenses in the lens storage case. Remember to replace the case after every three months. After each use, clean the case and let it dry in between cleanings.